Archivo para 22 abril 2010

Raimundo Lulio (1235-1316)

Ramon Llull (1235-1316) fue el responsable de la creación del catalán como lengua literaria, una tarea gigantesca, y a lo largo de los ochenta años que duró su vida, escribió doscientos cincuenta y seis textos en catalán, latín y árabe – que suman un total aproximado de veintisiete mil páginas –, y el esfuerzo editorial que conlleva la versión definitiva de la obras completas de Llull sigue pendiente todavía hoy. Llull fue el primer hombre desde la antigüedad que escribió textos filosóficos en la lengua de su gente, que luego tradujo al latín para hacerlos accesibles a los neoaristotélicos. Fue, alternativamente, un calavera, poeta que cantaba al amor, hombre de letras, místico, filosofo, hombre de acción y misionero. Sin duda uno de los hombres más cultos de su tiempo, dominaba al menos seis lenguas – incluido el árabe, al que había dedicado nueve años de estudios –. En realidad la filosofía árabe impregnaba su pensamiento, y la poesía islámica embellecía la riqueza extática de sus frases y metáforas. El hecho de que Llull bebiera de las fuentes del sufismo constituye uno de los principales rasgos que definen su obra frente a la monótona producción latinizante de los escolásticos ortodoxos.

Raimundo Lulio

Filosofia Natural

El primer paso después del rebasamiento de Aristóteles es el ya insinuado por Pico della Mirándola: la magia. Ésta se basa en dos principios fundamentales: primeramente en el hecho de que todo ser del universo está penetrado por una fuerza especial, única y semejante (o igual) a la que anima al hombre y que lleva a una comunidad de todos los seres en forma de simpatía universal. Con ello surge el intento de querer apresar esa fuerza común y oculta como se puede apresar y dominar cualquier objeto natural. El segundo principio se deriva de éste y consiste en la admisión de la posibilidad de penetrar en los secretos más ocultos de la naturaleza de forma directa, para lo cual se inventan fórmulas y procedimientos mágicos eficaces. Se trata, pues, de un dominio del hombre sobre todo lo natural, partiendo de la base de la comunidad de naturaleza que une lo más oculto y radical de los seres con lo más oculto y radical del hombre mismo y sus poderes.

Cornelio Agripa Nettesheim (1486-1535)

Pico della Mirándola (1463-1494)

Cornelio Agripa Nettesheim (1486-1535)

Teofrasto Paracelso (1493-1541)

Giordano Bruno (1548-1600)

Francisco Bacon (1561-1626).

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)

neoplatonismo

neopitagóricos

Michael Maier’s Atalanta fugiens

Michael Maier’s alchemical emblem book Atalanta fugiens was first published in Latin in 1617. It was a most amazing book as it incorporated 50 emblems with epigrams and a discourse, but extended the concept of an emblem book by incorporating 50 pieces of music the ‘fugues’ or canons. In this sense it was an early example of multimedia.

But a doubt may [be] raised how the Earth may be said to be the NURSE of the Philosophical Infant, seeing it is the Element which is most dry & void of Juice, insomuch that Dryness appertains to it as its proper quality. It may be answered that Earth Elemented is to be understood, & not the Element of Earth, whose Nature we have fully explained in the first day of our Philosophical Week. This Earth is the Nurse of Caelum or Heaven, not by opening, washing, or moistening the Infant, but by coagulating, fixing, coloring and converting it into more Juice & Blood. For Nutrition implies an Augmentation in length, breadth & Depth which extends itself through all the Dimensions of a Body, & seeing this can be afforded & administered to the Philosophical Infant by Earth only, it can in no wise be improper to call the Earth by the name of his NURSE. But this admirable Juice of Earth has a quality different from other kinds of Milk which are converted & do not convert for this by reason of its most efficacious Virtue does mightily alter the Nature of the thing Nourished, as the Milk of the Wolf is believed to have disposed the Body of Romulus to a Nature that was Magnanimous & prepense to War.

Doctor Robert Fludd (1574-1637)

Robert Fludd was born at Milgate House, in the parish of Bearsted and county of Kent, in the year 1574. His father was Sir Thomas Fludd who served Queen Elizabeth for many years and received his Knighthood for his services as War Treasurer in the Netherlands.

Little is known concerning the early life of Robert Fludd. At the age of seventeen, he entered St. John’s College, Oxford and graduated B.A. and M.A. between the years 1596-1598. Although the spirit of the College St. John the Baptist was in the direction of a variety of knowledge, it still remained a center for theological studies. His years at St. John made a great impression upon him, and he remained “at all times a faithful and attached friend and member of the Church of England.” (Craven, 22)

Fludd was more conservative than other Paracelsians of this time, and yet he had enough of his own radical philosophies to raise the eyebrows of his more conservative contemporaries. These interests may have developed during his six year journey throughout Europe following his graduation.

Upon graduation, Fludd decided to pursue the medical sciences and ventured to the Continent to further his studies as a roaming scholar. It was during these six years of study as a medical student that he became quite proficient in chemistry, an interest that led him into Paracelsian medical circles. He also developed a great interest in Rosicrucian philosophy and later was to become one of the Movement’s most ardent supporters.

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